The Book of Acts: Ludlow is an assistant professor of ancient scripture at Brigham Young University.
Cluny[ edit ] From the 6th century onward most of the monasteries in the West were of the Benedictine Order. Owing to the stricter adherence to a reformed Benedictine rulethe abbey of Cluny became the acknowledged leader of western monasticism from the later 10th century.
Cluny created a large, federated order in which the administrators of subsidiary houses served as deputies of the abbot of Cluny and answered to him. The Cluniac spirit was a revitalising influence on the Norman church, at its height from the second half of the 10th centuries through the early 12th.
Bernard of Clairvauxin a medieval illuminated manuscript.
The next wave of monastic reform came with the Cistercian Movement. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to a literal observance of the Benedictine rulerejecting the developments of the Benedictines.
The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, and especially to field-work. Inspired by Bernard of Clairvauxthe primary builder of the Cistercians, they became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe.
By the end of the 12th century the Cistercian houses numberedand at its height in the 15th century the order claimed to have close to houses. Most of these were built in wilderness areas, and played a major part in bringing such isolated parts of Europe into economic cultivation.
Mendicant orders[ edit ] A third level of monastic reform was provided by the establishment of the Mendicant orders.
Commonly known as friars, mendicants live under a monastic rule with traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obediencebut they emphasise preaching, missionary activity, and education, in a secluded monastery. Beginning in the 12th centurythe Franciscan order was instituted by the followers of Francis of Assisiand thereafter the Dominican order was begun by St.
Investiture Controversy Henry IV at the gate of Canossa, by August von Heyden The Investiture Controversyor Lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe.
The end of lay investiture threatened to undercut the power of the Empire and the ambitions of noblemen for the benefit of Church reform. Bishops collected revenues from estates attached to their bishopric. Noblemen who held lands fiefdoms hereditarily passed those lands on within their family.
However, because bishops had no legitimate children, when a bishop died it was the king's right to appoint a successor. So, while a king had little recourse in preventing noblemen from acquiring powerful domains via inheritance and dynastic marriages, a king could keep careful control of lands under the domain of his bishops.
Kings would bestow bishoprics to members of noble families whose friendship he wished to secure. Furthermore, if a king left a bishopric vacant, then he collected the estates' revenues until a bishop was appointed, when in theory he was to repay the earnings. The infrequence of this repayment was an obvious source of dispute.
The Church wanted to end this lay investiture because of the potential corruption, not only from vacant sees but also from other practices such as simony. Thus, the Investiture Contest was part of the Church's attempt to reform the episcopate and provide better pastoral care.
Pope Gregory VII issued the Dictatus Papaewhich declared that the pope alone could appoint or depose bishops, or translate them to other sees. Henry VI's rejection of the decree lead to his excommunication and a ducal revolt; eventually Henry received absolution after dramatic public penance barefoot in Alpine snow and cloaked in a hairshirt see Walk to Canossathough the revolt and conflict of investiture continued.
A key issue the early Christian Church faced in regards to new converts and policy was how much the Jewish customs and traditions that had been the background of the earliest Apostles and converts should persist. Indeed, it is the art form most suited to expressing the church's unity in the body of Christ.3 Different voices, different instruments, different parts are blended to offer a . implementation of character education programs in elementary schools. Character education should be an integral part of the curriculum, not taught as a separate subject. This includes not only academi c subjects but also specialty areas such as art, music, and physical education.
AnselmArchbishop of Canterbury, over investiture and ecclesiastical revenues collected by the king during an episcopal vacancy.
The English dispute was resolved by the Concordat of London,where the king renounced his claim to invest bishops but continued to require an oath of fealty from them upon their election.
This was a partial model for the Concordat of Worms Pactum Calixtinumwhich resolved the Imperial investiture controversy with a compromise that allowed secular authorities some measure of control but granted the selection of bishops to their cathedral canons.Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of . This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged authoritarian religion, Christian dominionism, Christian Taliban, Christian theocracy, Christofascism, November elections, reblogs, religious fascism, religious freedom, separation of church and state, theocracy in America, theocratic regimes.
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