The decline of the mining industry in wales history essay

In the 3, years that have passed since those ancient times, minerals have played a major role in the economic and social development of Wales.

The decline of the mining industry in wales history essay

The high carbon content and relatively low level of impurities of anthracite make it ideal for domestic burning as well as for other purposes generally associated with coal, such as gas production.

Welsh anthracite contains up to 94 per cent carbon, gives off little smoke and ash, is slow burning and gives off an intense heat, making it more economical to use than the softer bitumous coals found elsewhere.

It was the outstandingly high quality of the anthracite and the ability to get it to the ports for export that made South Wales anthracite so important. The South Wales Coalfield with the approximate location of Cwmamman shown by the red circle.


Coal was originally used in Cwmamman on a very small scale, with local people obtaining the coal for domestic use from where it outcrops at the surface. The oldest coal mine in Cwmamman was reputedly sited at Brynlloi, Glanamman and dates as far back as The workings were probably driven into the side of the hill and the coal brought out on a wooden barge via a canal.

The only evidence today is the reference made in an essay written by D. The essay states that the oak barge was still kept in the barn at Brynlloi Farm. The old Brynlloi Farm was demolished in Although no evidence can today be seen of the original 18th century mine, there is visible ground disturbance caused by later coal workings near the site of the original farmhouse.

Inan advert appeared in the "Cambrian" newspaper, advertising "Garnant Colliery" for letting. The lease was to include all of the coal seams under Gors-y-Garnant and Cwmgarnant farms. The coal seams were advertised as between 3 to 6 feet 1 to 2 metresthick and supposedly of the best quality in the country.

It is likely that the "Garnant Colliery" mentioned here was situated at the border of Garnant and Gwaun-cae-gurwen near the main highway. A gulley was cut, to carry water from "Pwll-y-wrach" under the Gwaun-cae-gurwen viaduct which then had not been builtto near the colliery site in order to turn a water wheel.

The decline of the mining industry in wales history essay

The wheel was needed to provide the colliery with power to work pumps etc, which were used to remove water from the pit.

A nearby site formally named "Garnant Colliery" was the location of the Amman Valley's worst mining accident on the 16th of Januarywhen the rope holding the cage broke and 10 men 3 were only 14 years oldwere killed.

It is not clear which of the two "Garnant Colliery" sites was also known locally as "Pwll Perkins" after the family who once owned it, though it is likely to be the latter.

The decline of the mining industry in wales history essay

Other collieries were working in the same area in the first half of the 19th Century and evidence of this is provided by another advert in the "Cambrian" newspaper from An advert for the lease of the Red Lion public house then sited across the road from Garnant Collierystated that it was within yards or metresof Garnant Colliery and in the immediate neighbourhood of Messrs.

James and Aubrey's and other extensive works. Old ordnance survey maps of Cwmamman show the scale of coal mining in the vicinity.The End of Coal Mining in South Wales: Lessons learned from industrial transformation Despite the inability of policy to offset the social impacts of industrial decline in South Wales, the case of South Wales in confronting the closure of pits and the end of its mining industry delivers some.

Some Captured History of Glanamman and Garnant Coal Mining at Cwmamman.

Coal Mining at Cwmamman Wales before the Norman Conquest The prehistory of Wales Meaningful study of prehistoric Wales has to be pursued against the broader background of British prehistory, for the material remains of the period — bce especially funerary monuments, provide regional manifestations of features characteristic of Britain as a whole. The Celtic origins of Britain, probably to be sought in a gradual process within the last millennium bce, are a matter of continuing scholarly debate.
Constitutional framework The first recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was a series of photographs of a running horse by Eadweard Muybridgewhich he took in Palo Alto, California using a set of still cameras placed in a row.
Government and society It is divided into two separate political entities: Dublin is the capital of the former, Belfast of the latter.

Cwmamman lies in the western part of the South Wales Coalfield; an area rich in hard, compact anthracite coal. In the history of the mankind, the need of resources was the most important factor for political, technological, economic, social evolutions.

In modern times need of energy resources become more significant than other industries who were more important during the past like the production of wood.

Acculturation and Assimilation

A page about Fernie, British Columbia, describing the history of its industry and society, its layout, accommodations, tourist attractions and recreation.

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The decline of the UK Coal Industry Tejvan Pettinger December 11, Uncategorized In the s, George Orwell volunteered to spend time down a coal mine to find what life was like for coal miners.

History of coal mining - Wikipedia