Naming[ edit ] The war s have alternatively been called: Creation of Yugoslavia and Breakup of Yugoslavia Map of the six Yugoslav republics and autonomous provinces at the time. The Yugoslav Partisan movement was able to appeal to all groups, including Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks.
Weapons of World War I Tear gas[ edit ] The most frequently used chemicals during World War I were tear-inducing irritants rather than fatal or disabling poisons.
The stocks were rapidly consumed and by November a new order was placed by the French military. As bromine was scarce among the Entente allies, the active ingredient was changed to chloroacetone.
Large-scale use and lethal gases[ edit ] The first instance of large-scale use of gas as a weapon was on 31 Januarywhen Germany fired 18, artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas on Russian positions on the Rawka Riverwest of Warsaw during the Battle of Bolimov.
Instead of vaporizing, the chemical froze and failed to have the desired effect. At high concentrations and prolonged exposure it can cause death by asphyxiation.
This is a horrible weapon Surviving defenders drove back the attack and retained the fortress. Germany used chemical weapons on the eastern front in an attack at Rawkasouth of Warsaw.
The Russian army took 9, casualties, with more than 1, fatalities.
In response, the artillery branch of the Russian army organised a commission to study the delivery of poison gas in shells. Men who stood on the parapet suffered least, as the gas was denser near the ground. The worst sufferers were the wounded lying on the ground, or on stretchers, and the men who moved back with the cloud.
The gas produced a Making war at home in the greenish cloud and strong odour, making it easy to detect. It was water-soluble, so the simple expedient of covering the mouth and nose with a damp cloth was effective at reducing the effect of the gas.
It was thought to be even more effective to use urine rather than water, as it was known at the time that chlorine reacted with urea present in urine to form dichloro urea.
The Germans issued their troops with small gauze pads filled with cotton waste, and bottles of a bicarbonate solution with which to dampen the pads. Immediately following the use of chlorine gas by the Germans, instructions were sent to British and French troops to hold wet handkerchiefs or cloths over their mouths.
Simple pad respirators similar to those issued to German troops were soon proposed by Lieutenant-Colonel N. These pads were intended to be used damp, preferably dipped into a solution of bicarbonate kept in buckets for that purpose; other liquids were also used.
Because such pads could not be expected to arrive at the front for several days, army divisions set about making them for themselves. Locally available muslin, flannel and gauze were used, officers were sent to Paris to buy more and local French women were employed making up rudimentary pads with string ties.
Other units used lint bandages manufactured in the convent at Poperinge. Pad respirators were sent up with rations to British troops in the line as early as the evening of 24 April.
The response was enormous and a million gas masks were produced in a day. By 6 Julythe entire British army was equipped with the more effective " smoke helmet " designed by Major Cluny MacPhersonNewfoundland Regimentwhich was a flannel bag with a celluloid window, which entirely covered the head.
The race was then on between the introduction of new and more effective poison gases and the production of effective countermeasures, which marked gas warfare until the armistice in November It is a cowardly form of warfare which does not commend itself to me or other English soldiers We cannot win this war unless we kill or incapacitate more of our enemies than they do of us, and if this can only be done by our copying the enemy in his choice of weapons, we must not refuse to do so.
Chlorine, codenamed Red Star, was the agent to be used tons arrayed in 5, cylindersand the attack was dependent on a favourable wind.
Subsequent retaliatory German shelling hit some of those unused full cylinders, releasing gas among the British troops. The masks got hot, and the small eye-pieces misted over, reducing visibility.
Some of the troops lifted the masks to get fresh air, causing them to be gassed.
More deadly gases[ edit ] Plate I, Microscopic section of human lung from phosgene shell poisoning, American Red Cross and Medical Research Committee, An Atlas of Gas Poisoning, The deficiencies of chlorine were overcome with the introduction of phosgenewhich was prepared by a group of French chemists led by Victor Grignard and first used by France in Phosgene was sometimes used on its own, but was more often used mixed with an equal volume of chlorine, with the chlorine helping to spread the denser phosgene.
It had a potential drawback in that some of the symptoms of exposure took 24 hours or more to manifest. This meant that the victims were initially still capable of putting up a fight; this could also mean that apparently fit troops would be incapacitated by the effects of the gas on the following day.
The modified PH Gas Helmetwhich was impregnated with phenate hexamine and hexamethylene tetramine urotropine to improve the protection against phosgene, was issued in January Mustard gas[ edit ] Plate X, Microscopic section of human lung from mustard gas poisoning, American Red Cross and Medical Research Committee, An Atlas of Gas Poisoning, The most widely reported and, perhaps, the most effective chemical agent of the First World War was sulfur mustardknown as "mustard gas".
It is a volatile oily liquid. Delivered in artillery shells, mustard gas was heavier than air, and it settled to the ground as an oily liquid.The official blog for Game of Thrones on HBO.
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The most widely reported and, perhaps, the most effective chemical agent of the First World War was sulfur mustard, known as "mustard gas".It is a volatile oily liquid. It was introduced as a vesicant by Germany in July prior to the Third Battle of Ypres.
The Germans marked their shells yellow for mustard gas and green for chlorine and phosgene; hence they called the new gas Yellow Cross. Civil War Journey. Immerse yourself in Hoosier life during the Civil War and enlist to help defend the state from Confederate General John Hunt Morgan and his raiders.
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