In culture and the arts, interpreters of this era describe the kinds of cultural hybrids that emerge from mixing or rendering inoperative the categories of "high" and "low" cultures, and hybrids in cultural forms that have developed in regions where local identities seek definition against, or in dialog with, Western "hegemonic" cultures the mixing of "official" cultures and those defined as "other" in modernist ideologies. Postmodern views of history and national identity typically cancel a commitment to modern "master narratives" or "metanarratives" like progress and goal-directed history, and disrupt myths of national and ethnic identities as "natural" foundations of "unity.
Before then, a small minority of boys attended school. By the start of the 21st century, the majority of all children in most regions of the world attended school. Universal Primary Education is one of the eight international Millennium Development Goalstowards which progress has been made in the past decade, though barriers still remain.
Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have indicated that the main obstacles to funding for education include conflicting donor priorities, an immature aid architecture, and a lack of evidence and advocacy for the issue. Indigenous governments are reluctant to take on the ongoing costs involved.
There is also economic pressure from some parents, who prefer their children to earn money in the short term rather than work towards the long-term benefits of education. Nearly every country now has Universal Primary Education. Similarities — in systems or even in ideas — that schools share internationally have led to an increase in international student exchanges.
The Soros Foundation  provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Programs such as the International Baccalaureate have contributed to the internationalization of education. The global campus online, led by American universities, allows free access to class materials and lecture files recorded during the actual classes.
The Programme for International Student Assessment and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement objectively monitor and compare the proficiency of students from a wide range of different nations.
Education and technology in developing countries Edit Main article: Education and technology Technology plays an increasingly significant role in improving access to education for people living in impoverished areas and developing countries.
Charities like One Laptop per Child are dedicated to providing infrastructures through which the disadvantaged may access educational materials.
The laptops were widely available as of They are sold at cost or given away based on donations. In Africa, the New Partnership for Africa's Development NEPAD has launched an " e-school program " to provide allprimary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years.
India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students. Inthe Indian Space Research Organisation launched EDUSATa communications satellite providing access to educational materials that can reach more of the country's population at a greatly reduced cost.
The report examined the main challenges encountered by development organizations which support LCPSs. This success is attributed to excess demand. These surveys found concern for: This concern is widely found in the literature, suggesting the growth in low-cost private schooling may be exacerbating or perpetuating already existing inequalities in developing countries, between urban and rural populations, lower- and higher-income families, and between girls and boys.
The report findings suggest that girls may be underrepresented and that LCPS are reaching low-income families in smaller numbers than higher-income families. Quality and educational outcomes: It is difficult to generalize about the quality of private schools.
While most achieve better results than government counterparts, even after their social background is taken into account, some studies find the opposite. Quality in terms of levels of teacher absence, teaching activity, and pupil to teacher ratios in some countries are better in LCPSs than in government schools.
Choice and affordability for the poor: Parents can choose private schools because of perceptions of better-quality teaching and facilities, and an English language instruction preference. Nevertheless, the concept of 'choice' does not apply in all contexts, or to all groups in society, partly because of limited affordability which excludes most of the poorest and other forms of exclusion, related to caste or social status.
Cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability: There is evidence that private schools operate at low cost by keeping teacher salaries low, and their financial situation may be precarious where they are reliant on fees from low-income households.
The report showed some cases of successful voucher and subsidy programs; evaluations of international support to the sector are not widespread. Emerging approaches stress the importance of understanding the political economy of the market for LCPS, specifically how relationships of power and accountability between users, government, and private providers can produce better education outcomes for the poor.
Educational theory Edit A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation rates of students from low income families.
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Although American, Duncan performed primarily in Europe where she also founded schools.
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