Aftermath of the Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil WarJames Fearona scholar of civil wars at Stanford Universitydefines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies".
Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited. Sincethe United Nations has established 70 peace operations and has substantially evolved, adopting approaches to peace that extend beyond purely military concerns.
Indeed, the promises of peacekeeping as effective instrument of conflict reduction may, to some extent, explain the evolution toward multidimensional missions and the unprecedented number of peacekeepers deployed in the last decade. As consequence, the growing importance of peacekeeping effectiveness has sparked a new wave of research that empirically investigates whether and under which conditions UN peacekeeping works.
Peacekeepers are mostly deployed in conflict or postconflict environments where violence is either ongoing or lingering. Thus, violence remains a priority for peace missions.
Consequently, peacekeeping is deemed successful or effective according to whether it curbs conflict in several dimensions. Effective missions are those responsible for decreasing the intensity of battle violence, protecting civilians, and containing conflict diffusion and recurrence in the postwar phase.
Concerning mission features, peacekeeping success is more likely when large contingents are deployed under robust mandates. Mission type, size, and composition signal credible commitment from the international community and empower peacekeepers to halt violence while guaranteeing the implementation of peace agreements.
These nuanced understandings of peacekeeping stem from the availability of new data on both conflict and peace operations at the national and subnational levels of analysis.
Moreover, the empirical study of the effectiveness of peace operations has recently been flanked by simulation-based forecasting, field experiments, and surveys investigating local-level outcomes of peace missions. Unsurprisingly, the focus on violence and conflict outcomes as indicators of success is debatable.
First, in dealing with violence, peacekeeping operations produce spillover effects that are largely neglected, such as refugee flows and terrorist violence. Second, given the wide range of functions performed by UN peacekeepers, including electoral assistance, economic reconstruction, and state building, it is reasonable to include these aspects when defining effectiveness.
Third, and relatedly, no assessment of short- versus long-term implications of peacekeeping for political, social, and economic development in the host country has been forthcoming.
While reducing infant mortality, inequality, and crime are not necessarily tasks for peacekeepers, it is vital to study whether and how UN missions may have shaped the quality of peace in host countries. In addition, regional organizations, such as the African Union and the European Union, have conducted their own peace operations—an additional 65 missions between and see Williams, As Figure 1 shows, the number of countries contributing to UN peace operations, merely 45 after the end of the Cold War, has reached almost in the contemporary period Figure 1bins, left-hand Y-axis.
Click to view larger Figure 1. Number of peacekeepers and number of countries contributing Kathman, Figure created by authors.
The critical questions for both academic and policy-making communities are: And are peacekeeping operations effective? This article does not aim to provide complete answers to these questions, seeking instead to review and contextualize the wealth of quantitative research on this very topic.
Importantly, before appropriate answers are found, lingering challenges must be addressed. First, what is meant by effectiveness?
Some scholars have focused on the mere presence of peace operations or have extended their analysis to different mission mandates. More recently, quantitative research has investigated whether the size of a mission, its composition of troops or observers, and the heterogeneity of nationalities can affect its effectiveness.
Third, does it matter how the effectiveness of peace operations is studied? The research design selected to evaluate and study the effectiveness of peace operations is, itself, a salient issue. For example, are peace operations deployed to the easy or hard cases?
How have specific research designs accounted for this nonrandom assignment of the treatment and omitted viable bias? Moreover, further debates on the empirical study of peace operations have focused on temporal and spatial analytical units: Missions have been deployed in very large countries such as Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, or Sudan, but the physical deployment occurs in more specific locations.
Should the capacity of peace operations to stop violence at the subnational level also be studied? The remaining sections of this article discuss the aforementioned issues and questions and are organized as follows. First, the conceptualizations and operationalizations used in research on the effectiveness of peace operations are reviewed.
Second, the theoretical framework usually used to study peace operations effectiveness in quantitative research is summarized. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the range of research designs used in the empirical literature is discussed.
Third, the main findings using tables capturing results of different dependent and explanatory variables are presented, including trends of peace operations in terms of size of deployments, contributing countries, and evolution of mandates.
The article concludes with a section that highlights what remains absent in empirical studies of peacekeeping effectiveness.While United Nations peacekeeping missions were created to keep peace and perform post-conflict activities, since the end of the Cold War peacekeepers are more often deployed to active conflicts.
This article provides the first broad empirical examination of UN peacekeeping effectiveness in reducing battlefield violence in civil wars. We analyze how the number of UN peacekeeping personnel deployed influences the amount of battlefield deaths in all civil wars in Africa from to In one of the first analyses of peacekeeping effectiveness, Heldt () evaluates peacekeeping success based on presence of civil war.
Using a global sample of all civil wars from to , he finds that missions’ characteristics have no impact on war, while conflict characteristics explain . Michael Doyle (Columbia University) and Nicholas Sambanis (Yale University) demonstrated in that the presence of a large peacekeeping operation in a country emerging from civil war significantly reduced the chances of that society slipping back into violence.
They reached this conclusion by analyzing post-conflict countries that had, .
|Civil war - Wikipedia||Aftermath of the Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil WarJames Fearona scholar of civil wars at Stanford Universitydefines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than casualties,  while others further specify that at least must come from each side.|
|In This Article||Via the United Nations. In the interview, I said that more than two dozen major peace operations have been deployed over the past 25 years in countries emerging from civil wars, and that although some have been terrible failures e.|
Fortna, V. P.
(). Inside and out: Peacekeeping and the duration of peace after civil and interstate wars. International Studies Review, 5(4), 97– Find this resource: Google Preview; WorldCat; Fortna, V.
P. (a). Does peacekeeping keep peace? International intervention and the duration of peace after civil war. Daniel Blocq provides a detailed study on the effectiveness of peacekeeping during civil war. The prevalence and destructiveness of civil wars in Mali, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and many other countries has spurred debates about peacekeeping.